Introduction and history of immunology pdf
Introduction to ImmunologyImmunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Important initial barriers to infection are physical e. The internal mucosal tissues e. In the airways, mobile ciliate hairs work together to transport contaminants away from vulnerable areas. Tissues such as the skin, mucosal surfaces and airways also contain populations of immune cells that can respond to infectants that breach these physical defences. Both systems work in close cooperation and, to an important extent, the adaptive immune system relies upon the innate immune system to alert it to potential targets, and shape its response to them. All immune cells originate in the bone marrow , deriving from haematopoietic stem cells , but an important set of immune cells T lymphocytes undergo maturation in an organ known as the thymus.
History of Immunology Part 1
Written by an immunologist, A History of Immunology traces the concept of immunity from ancient times up to the present day, examining how changing concepts and technologies have affected the course of the science. It shows how the personalities of scientists and even political and social factors influenced both theory and practice in the field. With fascinating stories of scientific disputes and shifting scientific trends, each chapter examines an important facet of this discipline that has been so central to the development of modern biomedicine.
An introduction to immunology and immunopathology
Immunology is the study of the organs, cells, and chemical components of the immune system. The immune system creates both innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate response exists in many lower species, all the way up the evolutionary ladder to humans, and it acts through relatively crude means against large classes of pathogens. The adaptive response is unique to vertebrates, reacting to foreign invaders with specificity and selectivity. The immune system must maintain a delicate balance, with potent defensive responses capable of destroying large numbers of foreign cells and viruses while refraining from undue destruction of the host's body.
Immunology - An Overview (2019)
Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the development of this review. Beyond structural and chemical barriers to pathogens, the immune system has two fundamental lines of defense: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the first immunological mechanism for fighting against an intruding pathogen. It is a rapid immune response, initiated within minutes or hours after aggression, that has no immunologic memory. Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is antigen-dependent and antigen-specific; it has the capacity for memory, which enables the host to mount a more rapid and efficient immune response upon subsequent exposure to the antigen.