Research methodology and statistical quantitative methods pdf
How to Write Research Methodology in Four Steps | With ExamplesHome Consumer Insights Market Research. Quantitative research, is defined as a the systematic investigation of phenomena by gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical or computational technique s. Quantitative research gathers information from existing and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys , online polls , questionnaires etc. After careful understanding of these numbers to predict the future of a product or service and make changes accordingly. An example of quantitative research is, the survey conducted to understand the amount of time a doctor takes to tend to a patient when the patient walks into the hospital. A patient satisfaction survey template can be administered to ask questions like how much time did a doctor take to see a patient, how often does the patient walk into a hospital and other such questions.
Quantitative Research Approach
Statistical methods involved in carrying out a study include planning, designing, collecting data, analysing, drawing meaningful interpretation and reporting of the research findings. The statistical analysis gives meaning to the meaningless numbers, thereby breathing life into a lifeless data. The results and inferences are precise only if proper statistical tests are used. This article will try to acquaint the reader with the basic research tools that are utilised while conducting various studies. The article covers a brief outline of the variables, an understanding of quantitative and qualitative variables and the measures of central tendency. An idea of the sample size estimation, power analysis and the statistical errors is given. Finally, there is a summary of parametric and non-parametric tests used for data analysis.
Date published February 25, by Shona McCombes. Date updated: September 19, In your thesis or dissertation, you will have to discuss the methods you used to do your research. The methodology or methods section explains what you did and how you did it, allowing readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of the research. It should include:. The methodology section should generally be written in the past tense. Table of contents Explain your methodological approach Describe your methods of data collection Describe your methods of analysis Evaluate and justify your methodological choices Tips for writing a strong methodology.
Apply the common statistical approaches in quantitative data analysis. LEARNING Researchers using the quantitative method identify one or a few variables.
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Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon. Babbie, Earl R. The Practice of Social Research. Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality.
Quantitative research most often uses deductive logic, in which researchers start with hypotheses and then collect data which can be used to determine whether empirical evidence to support that hypothesis exists. Quantitative analysis requires numeric information in the form of variables. A variable is a way of measuring any characteristic that varies or has two or more possible values. Many characteristics are naturally numeric in nature such as years of education, age, income ; for these numeric variables, the numbers used to measure the characteristic are meaningful in that they measure the amount of that characteristic that is present. Often researchers are interested in characteristics which are not numeric in nature such as gender, race, religiosity , but even these variables are assigned numeric values for use in quantitative analysis although these numbers do not measure the amount of the characteristic present. Variables can thus be divided into numeric variables in which the numbers have meaning and categorical variables which are commonly words or ranges. Quantitative data can be collected in a variety of ways.