Envy and gratitude and other works pdf
Envy and Gratitude and Other Works by Melanie KleinObject Relations Theory Melanie Klein. Summary: A model of human psyche, transitioning from a paranoid-schizoid to a depressive position, while emphasizing the critical role of parental care during infancy. Keywords: Object relations, unconscious phantasy, paranoid-schizoid position, depressive position, child development, binary splitting, projective identification. Object Relations Theory. This collection of theories discusses the effect of the internalized relations with primary caretakers during infancy i.
Envy and Gratitude and Other Works
Melanie Klein was born in Vienna in At about fourteen she decided to study medicine. With her brother's help she learned enough Greek and Latin to pass into the Gymnasium. But her early engagement and subsequent marriage in brought a halt to her plans. Years later, discovering a booklet on dreams by Freud, she turned her attention to psychoanalysis.
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The Kleinian psychoanalytic school of thought, of which Melanie Klein was a pioneer, considers envy to be crucial in understanding both love and gratitude. Klein defines envy as "the angry feeling that another person possesses and enjoys something desirable — the envious impulse being to take it away or to spoil it" projective identification. Klein , p Envy leads the child to phantasise about entering the primal good object the good breast and debase the good object specifically because it is good. This phantasy is a manifestation of the death instinct , where bad feelings are directed towards both good and bad objects, leading to confusion between the two Hinshelwood, Klein further defines envy as an innate "expression of destructive impulses" meaning it is present from birth, and that it has a "constitutional basis", implying it is resistant to change. Kleinian gratitude is diametrically opposed to envy, as envy expresses destructive drives and is usually aimed at the object that provides gratification.