Human form and function pdf
Overview of Anatomy and Physiology | Boundless Anatomy and PhysiologySome of these structures are very small and can only be observed and analyzed with the assistance of a microscope. Other larger structures can readily be seen, manipulated, measured, and weighed. Later, physicians were allowed to dissect bodies of the dead to augment their knowledge. When a body is dissected, its structures are cut apart in order to observe their physical attributes and their relationships to one another. Dissection is still used in medical schools, anatomy courses, and in pathology labs. In order to observe structures in living people, however, a number of imaging techniques have been developed.
Anatomy describes the structure and location of the different components of an organism to provide a framework for understanding. Human anatomy studies the way that every part of a human, from molecules to bones, interacts to form a functional whole. There are two major types of anatomy. Gross macroscopic anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye, such as the external and internal bodily organs. Microscopic anatomy is the study of tiny anatomical structures such as tissues and cells. Regional anatomy is widely used in modern teaching because it is easier to apply to a clinical setting than systemic anatomy.
Before you begin to study the different structures and functions of the human body, it is helpful to consider its basic architecture; that is, how its smallest parts are assembled into larger structures. It is convenient to consider the structures of the body in terms of fundamental levels of organization that increase in complexity: subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms and biosphere Figure 1. To study the chemical level of organization, scientists consider the simplest building blocks of matter: subatomic particles, atoms and molecules. All matter in the universe is composed of one or more unique pure substances called elements, familiar examples of which are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, and iron. The smallest unit of any of these pure substances elements is an atom.
Organization of the body
Human Body Systems Functions Overview: The 11 Champions (Updated)
Human body , the physical substance of the human organism, composed of living cells and extracellular materials and organized into tissues , organs , and systems. Human anatomy and physiology are treated in many different articles. For detailed discussions of specific tissues, organs, and systems, see human blood ; cardiovascular system ; digestive system, human ; endocrine system, human ; renal system ; skin ; human muscle system ; nervous system ; reproductive system, human ; respiration, human ; sensory reception, human ; skeletal system, human. For a description of how the body develops, from conception through old age , see aging ; growth ; prenatal development ; human development. For information on the structure and function of the cells that constitute the body, see cell.