Encyclopedia of literature and criticism pdf
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LITERARY heavenlybells.org | Literature About Literature | WorksLiterary criticism or literary studies is the study, evaluation , and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory , which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists. Whether or not literary criticism should be considered a separate field of inquiry from literary theory , or conversely from book reviewing, is a matter of some controversy. For example, the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism  draws no distinction between literary theory and literary criticism, and almost always uses the terms together to describe the same concept. Some critics consider literary criticism a practical application of literary theory, because criticism always deals directly with particular literary works, while theory may be more general or abstract. Literary criticism is often published in essay or book form.
He is co-editor with Amitava Kumar of Politics and Culture www. He is series editor for Routledge Critical Thinkers. Keith Booker is the James E. The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Literature www. Available both in print and online, this groundbreaking resource provides students, teachers, and researchers with cutting-edge scholarship in literature and literary studies. Sullivan, Jr. Blackwells publishing program has been merged with Wileys global Scientific, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell.
Literature , a body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. Literature may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language , national origin, historical period, genre , and subject matter. For historical treatment of various literatures within geographical regions, see such articles as African literature ; African theatre ; Oceanic literature ; Western literature ; Central Asian arts ; South Asian arts ; and Southeast Asian arts. Some literatures are treated separately by language, by nation, or by special subject e. Definitions of the word literature tend to be circular. And indeed its central meaning, at least, is clear enough.
By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean. Literary theory is a description of the underlying principles, one might say the tools, by which we attempt to understand literature. All literary interpretation draws on a basis in theory but can serve as a justification for very different kinds of critical activity. It is literary theory that formulates the relationship between author and work; literary theory develops the significance of race, class, and gender for literary study, both from the standpoint of the biography of the author and an analysis of their thematic presence within texts. Literary theory offers varying approaches for understanding the role of historical context in interpretation as well as the relevance of linguistic and unconscious elements of the text.
Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature. Many of these approaches are informed by various strands of Continental philosophy and of sociology. The practice of literary theory became a profession in the 20th century, but it has historical roots that run as far back as ancient Greece Aristotle 's Poetics is an often cited early example , ancient India Bharata Muni 's Natya Shastra , ancient Rome Longinus 's On the Sublime and medieval Iraq Al-Jahiz 's al-Bayan wa-'l-tabyin and al-Hayawan , and ibn al-Mu'tazz 's Kitab al-Badi. The theory and criticism of literature are tied to the history of literature. However, the modern sense of "literary theory" only dates to approximately the s when the structuralist linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure began to strongly influence English language literary criticism. In the academic world of the United Kingdom and the United States, literary theory was at its most popular from the late s when its influence was beginning to spread outward from universities such as Johns Hopkins , Yale , and Cornell through the s by which time it was taught nearly everywhere in some form.
With more than accessible entries on the important concepts, theorists, and trends in post literary and cultural theory, The Encyclopedia of Literary and Cultural Theory provides a highly informative reference work in this multidisciplinary field. The entries provide explanations of complex terms and important theoretical concepts, as well as summaries of the work and ideas of key figures. Arranged in three volumes, Literary Theory from to , Literary Theory from to the Present , and Cultural Theory , the entries cover all aspects of twentieth-century literary and cultural theory from M. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.