Iliad and odyssey summary pdf
The Iliad & The Odyssey
While Homer's existence as a historical person is still a topic of debate, the writings attributed to the name have made their mark not only on Greek history and literature, but upon western civilization itself. Homer's epic poems, The Iliad and The Odyssey, laid the foundation upon which Ancient Greece developed not only its culture, but its societal values, religious beliefs, and practice of warfare as well. This publication features the Samuel Butler translation, and while it strays from the poetic style reproduced by more well known translators like Robert Fagles and Robert Fitzgerald, the vision of the epics as if they were prose found in modern novels take their best form under Butler's most capable hand. Language: English. Published in: The Harvard Classics, originally known as Dr. Eliot's Five Foot Shelf, is a volume anthology of classic works from world literature, compiled and
The Iliad and Odyssey: Historical Background. See our timeline. These "Greeks" are relative late-comers to the area we now call "Greece" and likely originated to the East of Black Sea, around the area now called the Caucasus between the Black and Caspian seas, where Russia, Turkey and N. Iran meet. The story of Prometheus -- shackled to mount Caucus -- shows strong connections between their original culture and that of the Sumerians etc.
Set during the Trojan War , the ten-year siege of the city of Troy Ilium by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war, the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege; the earlier events, such as the gathering of warriors for the siege, the cause of the war , and related concerns tend to appear near the beginning. Then the epic narrative takes up events prophesied for the future, such as Achilles' imminent death and the fall of Troy, although the narrative ends before these events take place. However, as these events are prefigured and alluded to more and more vividly, when it reaches an end the poem has told a more or less complete tale of the Trojan War. The Iliad is paired with something of a sequel , the Odyssey , also attributed to Homer. Along with the Odyssey , the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature , and its written version is usually dated to around the 8th century BC. According to Michael N.
Through its portayal of the epic subject matter of the Trojan War, the stirring scenes of bloody battle, the wrath of Achilles and the constant interventions of the gods, it explores themes of glory , wrath , homecoming and fate , and has provided subjects and stories for many other later Greek, Roman and Renaissance writings. The Greeks are quarrelling about whether or not to return Chryseis, a Trojan captive of King Agamemnon , to her father, Chryses, a priest of Apollo. When Agamemnon refuses and threatens to ransom the girl to her father, the offended Apollo plagues them with a pestilence. The Greeks, at the behest of the warrior-hero Achilles , force Agamemnon to return Chryseis in order to appease Apollo and end the pestilence. Feeling dishonoured, Achilles wrathfully withdraws both himself and his Myrmidon warriors from the Trojan War. Testing the resolve of the Greeks, Agamemnon feigns a homeward order, but Odysseus encourages the Greeks to pursue the fight. The goddess Athena, however, who favours the Greeks, soon provokes a Trojan truce-breaking and battle begins anew.